Pomeranian Organ Landscape

Pomerania is divided by the Oder River into a larger part, Eastern Pomerania, now in Poland, and a smaller part, Western Pomerania, in today’s Germany. The Recknitz River forms the border between Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the West; in the East the historical border of Eastern Pomerania runs to the east of the towns of Lauenburg (Lebork), Bütow (Bytow), Schlochau (Czluchow), and Scheidemühl (Pila); in the South the border runs along the Netze River. A coast of 519 kilometers in length extends from the Darß Peninsula in the West to Piasnitz in the East. The islands of Rügen, Usedom, and Wollin (Wolin) are situated off the coast.

Historical Overview

The Pomeranians were converted to Christianity by Bishop Otto of Bamberg during 1124-28 in the course of two missionary journeys. In 1140 Pope Innocent II named St. Adalbert’s Church in Wollin (Wolin) the seat of the new diocese. Rügen first began to be Christianized in 1168, when it was conquered by King Waldemar I of Denmark. Cammin (Kamien Pomorski) has been a bishopric seat since 1176, and a second cathedral chapter was established in Kolberg (Kolobzreg) around 1200.

The city of Stettin (Szczecin), a member of the Hanseatic League since 1278 and already in the eleventh century the most important commercial center on the lower Oder, became the permanent ducal residence in 1487. In 1534, following the Landtag of Treptow an der Rega (Trzebiatow), Johannes Bugenhagen introduced the Reformation into Pomerania with the approval of Dukes Philipp I and Barnim IX; in the subsequent year he published a new set of church ordinances.

The Bishopric of Cammin (Kamien Pomorski) became a secondogeniture of the ducal house in 1556. The Greifen dynasty came to an end in 1637 with the death of Duke Bogislaw XIV. After the Thirty Years’ War the Peace of Westphalia assigned Eastern Pomerania and the Bishopric of Cammin (Kamien Pomorski) to Brandenburg and Western Pomerania with Stettin (Szczecin), Rügen, and a stretch of land east of the Oder to Sweden, while Duke Ernst Bogislaw von Croy, the last titular bishop of Cammin (Kamien Pomorksi), became the governor of Eastern Pomerania. In 1815 Pomerania became a Prussian province.
King Frederick William III carried out the union of the Lutherans and the Reformed Church in 1817. The Treaty of Versailles in 1919-20 made Pomerania a border province, for Germany had to surrender almost the whole provinces of Posen and West Prussia to Poland. The Posen-Westpreußen frontier province with the capital city of Schneidemühl (Pila) was formed from the remaining regions in 1922, only to be eliminated from the political map in 1938.
Its northern districts and the Neumark districts Arnswalde (Choszczno) and Friedeburg (Strzelce-Krajenskie) became part of Pomerania. As a consequence of World War II Eastern Pomerania became Polish territory, with the Oder forming the border between Germany and Poland. In 1947 Greifswald became the bishop’s seat of the Pomeranian Lutheran Church. Since 1990 Western Pomerania, together with Mecklenburg, has formed a Land in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Today Pomerania is one of Europe’s most interesting and richest organ landscapes: it is interesting for its cultural history and rich in extant instruments from various stylistic epochs. The organ landscape formed by a long, independent tradition as well as by various influences from elsewhere to a certain extent reflects the vicissitudinous and exciting history of this region.

Music has figured significantly in the sacred sphere ever since the introduction of Christianity to Pomerania in the twelfth century and the building and founding of numerous churches and monasteries accompanying this development. We may assume that, as elsewhere, the monasteries in a special way became centers for the cultivation of music and also for the construction of organs. Between 1360 and 1362 the Churches of St. James and Nicholas in Greifswald were equipped with organs, and in 1393 the Neuenkamp Monastery Church on the site of today’s Franzburg received its instrument. Johann Sculte is the first organ builder known to us by name. In 1493 he built a new main organ in the ambulatory above the Bruderschaftskapelle in St. Mary’s Church in Stralsund. The only remaining direct documentation of organ design from this period is a portative wind chest recently discovered during excavation work in the center of the city of Greifswald. This wind chest also represents one of the few surviving testimonies to medieval organ design in Northern Germany. A Gothic organ loft above the high altar in the Church of St. Nicholas in Stralsund is still extant. Important sources of stimulation for organ building during the Renaissance period came from the Netherlands, an area enjoying an especially highly developed organ culture in the sixteenth century. For example, we know of an organ-building project carried out by Fabian Peters of Sneek in St. Nicholas during 1575-77. Nikolaus Maaß, who obtained citizenship in Stralsund in 1592, was also probably from the Netherlands. In 1582 he renovated and expanded the organ installed by Jakob Scherer from Hamburg on the tower side of the Church of St. James in Stettin (Szczecin) in 1564. Evidence of his activity also exists for Barth, Greifswald, and Stralsund.

A few painted pipes used by the organ builder Christian Friedrich Voigt in 1773 in the construction of the organ in Blumberg presumably originated in Jakob Scherer’s workshop; they must be the only pipes from the sixteenth century still extant in Pomerania. During the seventeenth century the “masterful, renowned organ builder” Paul Lüdemann was active in Pasewalk. He built an organ for St. Mary’s Church in Köslin (Koszalin) during 1603-06 and a new instrument for the Castle Church there in 1620. His many projects included the enlargement of the organ in the Church of St. James in Stettin (Szczecin), built during 1625-28, to forty-five speaking stops. We owe two especially large and magnificent new organs from the seventeenth century to the patronage of Duke Ernst Bogislaw von Croy, the last Lutheran titular bishop of Cammin (Kamien Pomorski). As the last member of the defunct Greifen dynasty, he ambitiously strove to make himself and the greatness of his ancestors unforgettable. In 1654 he commissioned the organ builder Paul Fischer and the sculptor Hans Eddelwer, both from Rügenwalde, to build a three-manual organ for the Castle Church in Stolp (Slupsk).
Since 1650 Stolp (Slupsk) had been the residence of the duke and his mother, Anna von Croy. After Fischer’s sudden death, the instrument was completed by Michael Beriegel and inaugurated in 1657. Michael Beriegel, Friederich Stellwagen’s son-in-law, was also the builder of the second organ donated by Ernst Bogislaw von Croy, the instrument built in the Cammin (Kamien Pomorski) Cathedral during 1669-72. Splendid fronts and some of the front pipes are extant for both instruments, while the organ interiors themselves were later replaced. Since the reconstruction of the organ in 2002, Paul Fischer’s front pipes of 1657 can again be heard in the choir organ in Stolp (Slupsk) as the oldest functional organ stops in Pomerania. The most important organ from seventeenth-century Pomerania still extant today, however, was not a ducal donation but an expression of the pride of the citizens of a wealthy town: the monumental organ built by the Lübeck master Friedrich Stellwagen during 1653-59 for St. Mary’s Church in Stralsund. This splendid instrument represents the highest mastery of the Northern German early organ baroque both with respect to its sound quality and in relation to the pictorial mastery in the design of the case, which is over twenty meters high. As the only major organ of the seventeenth century extant in Germany in one of the magnificent brick cathedrals corresponding to the type of St. Mary’s Church in Lübeck, it and its two music galleries represent a monument of the first rank in the annals of music history. Plans for another organ of similar dimensions, the new construction of the organ in the Church of St. James, began being made in 1695 in Stettin (Szczecin). The commission was first given to Matthias Schurig, but he died in 1697. The instrument was then completed in 1700 by Johann Balthasar Held, a pupil of Arp Schnitger. His splendid front stood until its destruction during World War II. Other organs from the seventeenth century still extant today in Pomerania include two currently unplayable instruments by unknown organ builders in Karnice (Karnitz) and Kremzow (Krepcewo) and the two-stop positive organ in the Castle Chapel in Griebenow.

Many organs built in village churches during the eighteenth century were donated by noble families residing there. For example, the especially magnificent instrument built by an unknown master around 1710 in the church in Wusterwitz (Ostrowiec) near Schlawe (Slawno) was a donation by the noble Podewils family. Today, unfortunately, only the front remains standing. The instrument built by Christian Weldt from Grimmen in Deyelsdorf in 1741 still possesses original pipework, but the front in neighboring Nehringen elaborated in 1725, perhaps by Caspar Sperling from Rostock, contains an organ interior.

During 1740-41 Christian Gottlieb Richter from Alten Stettin built a large organ for the Church of St. James in Stralsund. The case, decorated with artistic excellence by the Stralsund sculptor Michael Müller, represents one of the most imposing baroque organ display sides in the whole of Northern Germany. It was later maintained when a new organ interior was built by Friedrich Albert Mehmel, who used Richter’s pedal chests and a part of the stop action. A lavish organ front from the same period demonstrating a similarity to East and West Prussian instruments has survived in St. Mary’s Church in Rügenwalde (Darlowo).

For a long time the beautiful baroque organ in the church at Wartin was regarded as an instrument by Christian Friedrich Voigt, a master resident there. In 1773 he built the already mentioned, currently unplayable balustrade organ in neighboring Blumberg. Precise study of church invoices, the inscriptions in the instruments, and special features of building design, however, led in 1999 to the identification of the instrument as an organ built by Joachim Wagner in 1744. Despite modification, the Wartin organ’s high percentage of well-preserved, original material now means that it ranks with the most valuable monumental organs of Pomerania. Three important organs were built by the prominent Wagner pupil Peter Migendt for Stettin (Szczecin): in the Castle Church in 1751, in St. Gertrude’s Church in 1752, and in the Church of St. Nicholas in 1763-64. All of these instruments were destroyed during the course of history or replaced by other instruments. The magnificent case of the organ built for St. Mary’s Church in Belgard (Bialogard) in 1768 by the Wagner pupil Ernst Marx is still extant.
A positive with double doors from around 1750 is found in the Neuensund church; it was installed there by Ernst Sauer in 1839. The organ in the Zettemin church is an exceptional instrument. It was built during 1779-80 by the Kummerow schoolmaster, sexton, and organist Matthias Friese, who acquired his knowledge of organ building as an autodidact. Today Zettemin belongs to the Lutheran Church of the Land of Mecklenburg, but from 1740 to 1966 it was an enclave in Pomeranian territory.

Two particularly valuable instruments have been preserved in the two late-baroque organs built by the Stralsund resident Christian Kindten in Ginst and Sagard on Rügen Island in 1790 and 1796. From an autobiographical letter by Kindten we learn that he was schooled in organ building in St. Petersburg. It is possible that there he was a pupil of the Swedish master Olof Schwan — which would explain the resemblance of the sound of Kindten’s instruments to Swedish organs of the late eighteenth century.

The organ-building style of the bordering Mecklenburg is represented in Western Pomerania by an organ built by Christian Heinrich Kersten from Rostock for the church in Saal in 1780.
After the whole of Pomerania became a part of Prussia in 1815, organ building in the Prussian capital, during the first half of the nineteenth century represented above all by the organ builders Johann Simon Buchholz and Carl August Buchholz, gained special influence, especially in the formerly Swedish part of Western Pomerania, where the Buchholzes, father and son, built a large number of small and large organs. Johann Simon Buchholz was a pupil of Ernst Marx and therefore a second-generation pupil of Joachim Wagner. Accordingly, his organs, for example, the instrument built in the Gristow Village Church in 1820, were built still very much in the spirit and the craftsmanship tradition of the eighteenth century. In 1821 father and son Buchholz completed a magnificent instrument in St. Mary’s Church in Barth. Its original complement of forty-two registers assigned to two manuals and the pedal and manual range up to g3 point ahead to a new era. Today this organ is not only the instrument with the largest original inventory by Buchholz in Germany but also is regarded as one of the early romantic organs with the most beautiful sound of all. The large organ in the Church of St. Nicholas in Stralsund built by Carl August Buchholz in 1841 and containing fifty-six stops, a greatly modified instrument, is also currently being reconstructed.

From the middle of the nineteenth century to World War I, the whole period of high and late romanticism, two workshops that developed from small beginnings and went on to radiate influence far beyond the region were determining factors in the history of organ design in Pomerania. These two companies were the Grüneberg Organ Building Company in Stettin (Szczecin) and Voelkner Organ Building Company in Dünnow (Duninowo). Georg Friedrich Grüneberg founded an organ-building workshop in Stettin (Szczecin) as early as 1782. His son August Wilhelm Grüneberg continued the workshop until his early death in 1837. With the new establishment of the workshop by Barnim Grüneberg in 1854, it underwent a magnificent development crowned by the construction of then largest organ in the world in Trinity Church in Libau in 1885. This instrument had 131 speaking stops assigned to four manuals and the pedal.
From the very beginning Barnim Grüneberg built in tandem instruments with slider chests and cone chests. (The latter group includes the organ in Görmin built in 1854 and containing one of the oldest cone chests in the history of the organ and an early register-crescendo unit.) In the final years of the nineteenth century he ended up going over to the exclusive building of cone chests, which beginning in 1900 were connected with a pneumatic action. In 1906 the company moved into new spacious workshop buildings in Stettin-Finkenwalde (Szczecin-Zdroje) accommodating its then sixty-five employees. The buildings are in part still standing today. After Barnim Grüneberg’s death his son Felix became the company’s director, but it was his fate to experience the decline of the company as a consequence of the two world wars.
The craftsmanship and sound quality of the Grüneberg organs were always outstanding, and the material employed was first-class. A large number of the instruments from all generations and construction periods, above all smaller organs, have survived. The largest organ extant in Pomerania is the four-manual organ in St. Bartholomew’s Parish Church in Demmin, an instrument completed in 1868. Of the three-manual, late-romantic instruments of the “pneumatic era,” only the organ in Belgard (Bialogard) still exists today. Christian Friedrich Voelkner was an apprentice under Carl August Buchholz for a number of years. In 1859 he returned to his native Dünnow (Duninowo) and founded his own organ building workshop there during the same year. His carefully constructed, tonally beautiful organs soon made him known beyond Pomerania’s borders, with the result that he could build a new factory in 1876 and acquire the first machines in 1877.
In 1900 Paul Voelkner, his son, became the head of the workshop; after the construction of another workshop building, it by that time had twenty employees and also delivered organs to Russia and German East Africa. After a conflagration caused by arson had destroyed a large part of the organ-building complex, Paul Voelkner founded a new, large organ factory in Bromberg (Bydgoszcz). This factory continued to exist until the end of World War I. Christian Friedrich Voelkner initially built slider-chest organs, in addition to at times his own mechanically or pneumatically operated suspended-valve chest. His son Paul Voelkner exclusively supplied instruments with pneumatic action. A large number of the solid, tonally impressive instruments have survived above all in the eastern part of Eastern Pomerania. The organ in Steglin (Szczeglino) has the original tin front and is thus completely extant in the original. Here, as also in Stolpmünde (Ustka), the church architecture in the neogothic style and the organ form an artistic unity. In addition to the Grüneberg and Voelkner workshops, a number of smaller organ-building workshops were based in Pomerania during the nineteenth century and early years of the twentieth century.

Among them the workshop of Friedrich Albert Mehmel, a Ladegast pupil who took up residence in Stralsund in 1859, was the most important. Mehmel employed fifteen workers and opened an affiliated workshop in Wismar in 1872. His greatest organ was the new organ built for the Church of St. James in Stralsund, an instrument praised by his contemporaries as one the most beautiful organs in the whole of Germany. This instrument with sixty-eight stops, four manuals, and pedal was plundered at the end of World War II and is currently still awaiting restoration. The outstanding achievements of which Mehmel was capable are rendered most apparent today by the organ in St. Mary’s Church in Greifswald, an instrument surviving almost completely in its original state, as well as by many village organs.
The latter instruments are exemplified by his organ in Nehringen, an instrument of nothing short of sophisticated design which need not shy away from comparison with Ladegast’s instruments. After Mehmel’s death in 1888, the workshop was headed by his son Paul Mehmel until 1896. Friedrich Nerlich, to whom we owe instruments such as the beautiful organ in Patzig on Rügen, built in 1846, was also active in Stralsund. In addition to Grüneberg, Friedrich and Emil Kaltschmidt were also able to hold their own in Stettin; they built slider-chest organs of noble sound obliged to the classical tradition. Fischer, an organ builder in Demmin, was a pupil of Johann Friedrich Schulz from Paulinzella, whose building style he copied completely in his village organs of robust sound. The organ builders Köhler in Stargard (Stragard Szczecinski), Hesse in Köslin (Koszalin), and Hildebrandt in Stolp (Slupsk) also in the main supplied small instruments.

The variety of today’s Pomeranian organ landscape is in part determined by a great number of instruments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries supplied by organ builders from other regions. In addition to the already mentioned organ builders Johann Simon Buchholz and Carl August Buchholz from Berlin, Johann Friedrich Schulze from Paulinzella in Thuringia, whose workshop built no fewer than forty organs for Pomerania between 1839 and 1861, is the first name that would have to be mentioned here. Unfortunately, only a few of these instruments still exist today. The largest extant instrument, the second largest organ of all from the Schulze Workshop still surviving today, is the organ in St. Mary’s Church in Treptow an der Rega (Trzebiatow). This instrument completed in 1842 has thirty-two stops and unfortunately is not playable at the present time. The organs in Kenz and in St. Gertrude’s Chapel in Rügenwalde (Darlowo) are very well preserved and survive completely in their original state.

The instrument supplied to Pomerania by the Thuringian Knauf Workshop of Tabarz (later of Bleicherode) and the Dutch Workshop of Schmiedefeld exhibit stylistic fatures related to the Schulze organs. Western Pomerania received some instruments by Friedrich Hermann Lütkemüller from Wittstock, while instruments by Albert Kienscherf from Eberwalde were favored in the former districts of Daber (Dobra) and Freienwalde (Chociwel). The Dinse Brothers of Berlin built a few organs in the region around Greifenberg (Gryfice) and in the Baltic Sea spas of Saßnitz and Zinnowitz.

Friedrich Friese III, the court organ builder in neighboring Mecklenburg-Schwerin, is represented only by a small instrument in the Western Pomeranian town of Lüssow. Walcker of Ludwigsburg and Schlag and Sons from Schweidnitz (an instrument of extraordinary beauty of sound by the latter firm stands in Trinity Church in Stettin [Szczecin]) were only rather sporadically active in Pomerania. In the instrument catalogue of Wilhelm Sauer of Frankfurt an der Oder we nevertheless find a listing of fourteen instruments supplied to the Prussian province between 1860 and 1909.

These instruments include the rebuilding and enlargement of the Buchholz organ in Gützkow in 1883. This instrument was again redesigned by Grüneberg in 1915, so that this organ today contains sound material by three important organ builders. In the wake of the economical prosperity of the "Gründerzeit" (industrial revolution), a veritable organ-building boom got underway in Pomerania around 1900. Indeed one almost has the impression that the various towns were vying with each other. The variety of workshops commissioned during this period is considerable, as the following overview (which could be continued) serves to demonstrate:

Cammin (Kamien Pomorski), cathedral — 1888, B. Grüneberg, Stettin: III/P, 45 (modified)
Kolberg (Kolobrzeg), cathedral — 1890, W. Sauer, Frankfurt an der Oder: III/P, 45 (no longer extant)
Köslin (Koszalin), St. Mary’s Church — 1899, Schlag & Sons, Schweidnitz: III/P, 50 (modified)
Swinemünde (Swinoujscie), Luther Church — 1906, B. Grüneberg, Stettin: II/P, 30 (no longer extant)
Pyritz (Pyrzyce), Church of St. Mauritius — 1907, Knauf & Son, Bleicherode: III/P, 48 (no longer extant)
Greifenberg (Gryfice), St. Mary’s Church — 1911, Dinse Brothers, Berlin: III/P, 40 (extant)
Belgard (Bialogard), St. Mary’s Church — 1912, B. Grüneberg, Stettin: III/P, originally 33 (extant)
Anklam, Church of St. Nicholas — 1912, B. Grüneberg, Stettin: III/P, 45 (no longer extant)
Stargard (Stargard Szczecinski), St. Mary’s Church – 1912, B. Grüneberg, Stettin: III/P, 55 (no longer extant)
Stettin (Szczecin), synagogue — 1914, E. F. Walcker & Co., Ludwigsburg. III/P, 42 ( no longer extant)
Rügenwalde (Darlowo), St. Mary’s Church — 1925, A. Voigt, Bad Liebenwerda: II/P, 30 (extant)
Swinemünde (Swinoujscie), Christ Church — 1927, Steinmeyer & Co., Oettingen: II/P, 30 (extant)

Not only the stop numbers and the very lavish equipping of the instruments with modern playing aids but also ambitious case designs such as the unusually magnificent neobaroque front of the Dinse organ in Greifenberg (Gryfice) demonstrate that with these instruments the aim was to create something special and extraordinary. In sound the organs remained obliged to late romanticism well into the 1920s.

Two instruments built by the Furtwängler & Hammer Company from Hanover at the beginning of the 1930s in Daber (Dobra) and in St. Mary Church’s in Stolp (Slupsk) were important in Pomerania for the realization of the ideas of the organ movement, which began around 1925. The organ in Stolp (Slupsk), destroyed during World War II, had been designed according to sketches by Christhard Mahrenholz and possessed fifty-three stops on four manuals (including a chair organ) and pedal. Felix Grüneberg only hesitantly appropriated the new system of thought.

The tonally beautiful organ built in Völschow, near Jarmen, in 1934 is a very fine example of a little Grüneberg organ representing a middle road between romanticism and the organ movement. During that time Grüneberg tried cautiously to add “baroque stops” to some romantic instruments such as the organ in St. Mary’s Church in Belgard (Bialogard). The organ in the Church of the Holy Cross in Stettin (Szczecin), built in 1937 with forty-two speaking stops, and the organ in St. Mary’s Church in Dramburg (Drawsko), originally built in 1913 as Opus 700 and newly specified in 1940, were much more consistently designed. Other remarkable neobaroque instruments were built during this period by the companies of Kemper & Son from Lübeck in 1941 in Loitz (three manuals with pneumatic pocket chests and a free pipe front) and by Alexander Schuke of Postdam in 1943 in the cloister on Hiddensee, in this case now a purely mechanical instrument with slider chests and a disposition after the model of Joachim Wagner.

Ernst Karl Rößler, a pastor, organ scholar, and composer born in Pyritz (Pyrzyce) in 1909, lent special impetus to the organ movement in Pomerania. Already in 1934, as a vicar in Rambin, he had published an article entitled “Old Organs in Pomerania” in the magazine Unser Pommernland. In 1937 Rößler became the pastor in Jamund (Jamno) near Köslin (Koszalin). His first major organ project was the redesign of the instrument built by the Schlag & Sons Company in Köslin (Koszalin). Rößler’s idea of the “bright and uncompromising transparent organ with silvery and clear tones” is very thoroughly realized in this instrument, which has remained unchanged in sound ever since then. In 1952 Rößler’s theoretical work about organ building entitled Klangfunktion und Registrierung was published by the Bärenreiter Publishing Company. A few smaller new organs were designed by Rößler in Western Pomerania after World War II. One example is the organ built in 1957, on the hundredth anniversary of the founding of the W. Sauer Organ Building Company of Frankfurt an der Oder, for the Züssow Charitable Services.

The first years after the devastating war represented, however, first and foremost a period of the restoration of many damaged, plundered organs, both in what then had become the Polish territory of Eastern Pomerania and in Western Pomerania. In Western Pomerania the organ builder Barnim Grüneberg, Jr., dedicated himself with great effort to this task beginning in 1947. After fleeing from Stettin (Szczecin), he had settled in Griefswald. Beginning in 1951 the responsible handling of old instruments and the planning of new instruments here lay in the hands of Dietrich W. Prost, a certified organ expert for many years and the organist at St. Mary’s Church in Stralsund.

Beginning in the 1950s the workshops of Alexander Schuke of Potsdam, Hermann Eule of Bautzen, the Jehmlich Brothers of Dresden, Wilhelm Sauer of Frankfurt an der Oder, and others created a series of mechanical slider-chest organs in the neobaroque aesthetic. Unfortunately, some of them replaced valuable older instruments. Examples of especially successful instruments include two great organs built by the Alexander Schuke Company, one in 1962 in St. Mary’s Church in Anklam and the other in 1968 in the Church of St. James in Greifswald. An important and complicated task in the preservation of organ monuments was the rebuilding of the Stellwagen organ (dismantled and placed in storage during the war) in St. Mary’s Church in Stralsund by the Alexander Schuke Organ Building Company during 1951-59. In Poland Kurt Berendt, an organ builder from Deutsch Krone (Walcz), again rendered the organ in the Cammin (Kamien Pomorski) Cathedral playable in 1962, and beginning in 1964 the Zygmunt Kaminski Company of Warsaw (Warszawa) undertook the complete restoration and redesign of the instrument.
In 1974 the same company built a new three-manual organ with electric action for the Stettin (Szczecin) Castle Church, restored as a concert hall in 1974, in addition to building various other instruments. In 1989 the Czech Rieger-Kloss Company installed a three-manual mechanical slider-chest organ with thirty-five stops in the auditorium of the Music Secondary School in Köslin (Koszalin); this organ is above all used as an instruction and practice instrument. The main task of current organ-building history in Pomerania lies in the preservation and restoration of numerous historical instruments.

During 2001-03 support from the ZEIT Foundation of Hamburg, Hermann Reemtsma Foundation of Hamburg, and German Foundation for Monument Preservation made it possible to restore fourteen organs in Western Pomerania in connection with a sponsorship program for the preservation of historical organs in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. These instruments include the baroque organs by Sagard and Saal, instruments by Grüneberg in Demmin, Altentreptow, and Gützkow, and the Buchholz organ in Barth. The project involving the restoration of the three great organs in the Churches of St. Nicholas, St. Mary, and St. James in Stralsund got underway in 2003 with financial support from the Hermann Reemtsma Foundation of Hamburg and the German Foundation for Monument Preservation. In Poland instruments such as the Steinmeyer organ in Christ Church in Swinemünde (Swinoujscie), Voelkner organ in Stolpmünde (Ustka), and Schlag & Sons organ in Trinity Church in Stettin (Szczecin) were restored during recent years. During 2000-02 the Jozef Mollin Company of Konitz (Chojnice) restored the Paul Fischer organ of 1657 in the Stolp (Slupsk) Castle Church on the basis of the original disposition, thus lending new impetus to local organ culture.

Martin Rost, Stralsund

(Translated by Susan Marie Praeder)